Source code for pypesto.problem.base

import copy
import logging
import sys
from import Iterable
from typing import (

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

from ..objective import ObjectiveBase
from ..objective.priors import NegLogParameterPriors
from ..startpoint import StartpointMethod, to_startpoint_method, uniform
from ..version import __version__

SupportsFloatIterableOrValue = Union[Iterable[SupportsFloat], SupportsFloat]
SupportsIntIterableOrValue = Union[Iterable[SupportsInt], SupportsInt]

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

[docs] class Problem: """ The problem formulation. A problem specifies the objective function, boundaries and constraints, parameter guesses as well as the parameters which are to be optimized. Parameters ---------- objective: The objective function for minimization. Note that a shallow copy is created. lb, ub: The lower and upper bounds for optimization. For unbounded directions set to +-inf. lb_init, ub_init: The lower and upper bounds for initialization, typically for defining search start points. If not set, set to lb, ub. dim_full: The full dimension of the problem, including fixed parameters. x_fixed_indices: Vector containing the indices (zero-based) of parameter components that are not to be optimized. x_fixed_vals: Vector of the same length as x_fixed_indices, containing the values of the fixed parameters. x_guesses: Guesses for the parameter values, shape (g, dim), where g denotes the number of guesses. These are used as start points in the optimization. x_names: Parameter names that can be optionally used e.g. in visualizations. If objective.get_x_names() is not None, those values are used, else the values specified here are used if not None, otherwise the variable names are set to ['x0', ... 'x{dim_full}']. The list must always be of length dim_full. x_scales: Parameter scales can be optionally given and are used e.g. in visualisation and prior generation. Currently the scales 'lin', 'log`and 'log10' are supported. x_priors_defs: Definitions of priors for parameters. Types of priors, and their required and optional parameters, are described in the `Prior` class. copy_objective: Whethter to generate a deep copy of the objective function before potential modification the problem class performs on it. startpoint_method: Method for how to choose start points. ``False`` means the optimizer does not require start points, e.g. for the ``PyswarmOptimizer``. Notes ----- On the fixing of parameter values: The number of parameters dim_full the objective takes as input must be known, so it must be either lb a vector of that size, or dim_full specified as a parameter. All vectors are mapped to the reduced space of dimension dim in __init__, regardless of whether they were in dimension dim or dim_full before. If the full representation is needed, the methods get_full_vector() and get_full_matrix() can be used. """
[docs] def __init__( self, objective: ObjectiveBase, lb: Union[np.ndarray, list[float]], ub: Union[np.ndarray, list[float]], dim_full: Optional[int] = None, x_fixed_indices: Optional[SupportsIntIterableOrValue] = None, x_fixed_vals: Optional[SupportsFloatIterableOrValue] = None, x_guesses: Optional[Iterable[float]] = None, x_names: Optional[Iterable[str]] = None, x_scales: Optional[Iterable[str]] = None, x_priors_defs: Optional[NegLogParameterPriors] = None, lb_init: Union[np.ndarray, list[float], None] = None, ub_init: Union[np.ndarray, list[float], None] = None, copy_objective: bool = True, startpoint_method: Union[StartpointMethod, Callable, bool] = None, ): if copy_objective: objective = copy.deepcopy(objective) self.objective = objective self.lb_full: np.ndarray = np.array(lb).flatten() self.ub_full: np.ndarray = np.array(ub).flatten() if lb_init is None: lb_init = lb self.lb_init_full: np.ndarray = np.array(lb_init).flatten() if ub_init is None: ub_init = ub self.ub_init_full: np.ndarray = np.array(ub_init).flatten() self.dim_full: int = ( dim_full if dim_full is not None else self.lb_full.size ) if x_fixed_indices is None: x_fixed_indices = [] x_fixed_indices = _make_iterable_if_value(x_fixed_indices, "int") self.x_fixed_indices: list[int] = [ _type_conversion_with_check(idx, ix, "fixed indices", "int") for idx, ix in enumerate(x_fixed_indices) ] # We want the fixed values to be a list, since we might need to add # or remove values during profile computation if x_fixed_vals is None: x_fixed_vals = [] x_fixed_vals = _make_iterable_if_value(x_fixed_vals, "float") self.x_fixed_vals: list[float] = [ _type_conversion_with_check(idx, x, "fixed values", "float") for idx, x in enumerate(x_fixed_vals) ] if x_guesses is None: x_guesses = np.zeros((0, self.dim_full)) self.x_guesses_full: np.ndarray = np.array(x_guesses) if x_names is None and objective.x_names is not None: x_names = objective.x_names elif x_names is None: x_names = [f"x{j}" for j in range(0, self.dim_full)] if len(set(x_names)) != len(x_names): raise ValueError("Parameter names x_names must be unique") self.x_names: list[str] = list(x_names) if x_scales is None: x_scales = ["lin"] * self.dim_full self.x_scales = x_scales self.x_priors = x_priors_defs self.normalize() self._check_x_guesses() # startpoint method if startpoint_method is None: startpoint_method = uniform # convert startpoint method to class instance self.startpoint_method = to_startpoint_method(startpoint_method) # save python and pypesto version self.python_version = ".".join(map(str, sys.version_info[:3])) self.pypesto_version = __version__
@property def lb(self) -> np.ndarray: """Return lower bounds of free parameters.""" return self.lb_full[self.x_free_indices] @property def ub(self) -> np.ndarray: """Return upper bounds of free parameters.""" return self.ub_full[self.x_free_indices] @property def lb_init(self) -> np.ndarray: """Return initial lower bounds of free parameters.""" return self.lb_init_full[self.x_free_indices] @property def ub_init(self) -> np.ndarray: """Return initial upper bounds of free parameters.""" return self.ub_init_full[self.x_free_indices] @property def x_guesses(self) -> np.ndarray: """Return guesses of the free parameter values.""" return self.x_guesses_full[:, self.x_free_indices] @property def dim(self) -> int: """Return dimension only considering non fixed parameters.""" return self.dim_full - len(self.x_fixed_indices) @property def x_free_indices(self) -> list[int]: """Return non fixed parameters.""" return sorted(set(range(0, self.dim_full)) - set(self.x_fixed_indices))
[docs] def normalize(self) -> None: """ Process vectors. Reduce all vectors to dimension dim and have the objective accept vectors of dimension dim. """ for attr in ["lb_full", "lb_init_full", "ub_full", "ub_init_full"]: value = self.__getattribute__(attr) if value.size == 1: self.__setattr__(attr, value * np.ones(self.dim_full)) elif value.size == self.dim: # in this case the bounds only holds the values of the # reduced bounds. self.__setattr__( attr, self.get_full_vector(value, self.x_fixed_vals) ) if self.__getattribute__(attr).size != self.dim_full: raise AssertionError(f"{attr} dimension invalid.") if self.x_guesses_full.shape[1] != self.dim_full: x_guesses_full = np.empty( (self.x_guesses_full.shape[0], self.dim_full) ) x_guesses_full[:] = np.nan x_guesses_full[:, self.x_free_indices] = self.x_guesses_full self.x_guesses_full = x_guesses_full # make objective aware of fixed parameters self.objective.update_from_problem( dim_full=self.dim_full, x_free_indices=self.x_free_indices, x_fixed_indices=self.x_fixed_indices, x_fixed_vals=self.x_fixed_vals, ) # make prior aware of fixed parameters (for sampling etc.) if self.x_priors is not None: self.x_priors.update_from_problem( dim_full=self.dim_full, x_free_indices=self.x_free_indices, x_fixed_indices=self.x_fixed_indices, x_fixed_vals=self.x_fixed_vals, ) # sanity checks if len(self.x_scales) != self.dim_full: raise AssertionError("x_scales dimension invalid.") if len(self.x_names) != self.dim_full: raise AssertionError("x_names must be of length dim_full.") if len(self.x_fixed_indices) != len(self.x_fixed_vals): raise AssertionError( "x_fixed_indices and x_fixed_vals must have the same length." ) if np.isnan( raise ValueError("lb must not contain nan values") if np.isnan(self.ub).any(): raise ValueError("ub must not contain nan values") if np.any( >= self.ub): raise ValueError("lb<ub not fulfilled.")
def _check_x_guesses(self): """Check whether the supplied x_guesses adhere to the bounds.""" if self.x_guesses.size == 0: return adheres_ub = self.x_guesses <= self.ub adheres_lb = self.x_guesses >= adheres_bounds = adheres_ub & adheres_lb # if any bounds are violated, log a warning if not adheres_bounds.all(): logger.warning( "Some initial guesses supplied violate the bounds " "set for this problem." )
[docs] def set_x_guesses(self, x_guesses: Iterable[float]): """ Set the x_guesses of a problem. Parameters ---------- x_guesses: """ x_guesses_full = np.array(x_guesses) if x_guesses_full.shape[1] != self.dim_full: raise ValueError( "The dimension of individual x_guesses must be " "dim_full." ) self.x_guesses_full = x_guesses_full self._check_x_guesses()
[docs] def fix_parameters( self, parameter_indices: SupportsIntIterableOrValue, parameter_vals: SupportsFloatIterableOrValue, ) -> None: """Fix specified parameters to specified values.""" parameter_indices = _make_iterable_if_value(parameter_indices, "int") parameter_vals = _make_iterable_if_value(parameter_vals, "float") # first clean to-be-fixed indices to avoid redundancies for iter_index, (x_index, x_value) in enumerate( zip(parameter_indices, parameter_vals) ): # check if parameter was already fixed, otherwise add it to the # fixed parameters index = _type_conversion_with_check( iter_index, x_index, "indices", "int" ) val = _type_conversion_with_check( iter_index, x_value, "values", "float" ) if index in self.x_fixed_indices: self.x_fixed_vals[self.x_fixed_indices.index(index)] = val else: self.x_fixed_indices.append(index) self.x_fixed_vals.append(val) self.normalize()
[docs] def unfix_parameters( self, parameter_indices: SupportsIntIterableOrValue ) -> None: """Free specified parameters.""" # check and adapt input parameter_indices = _make_iterable_if_value(parameter_indices, "int") # first clean to-be-freed indices for iter_index, x_index in enumerate(parameter_indices): index = _type_conversion_with_check( iter_index, x_index, "indices", "int" ) if index in self.x_fixed_indices: fixed_x_index = self.x_fixed_indices.index(index) self.x_fixed_indices.pop(fixed_x_index) self.x_fixed_vals.pop(fixed_x_index) self.normalize()
[docs] def get_full_vector( self, x: Union[np.ndarray, None], x_fixed_vals: Iterable[float] = None, x_is_grad: bool = False, ) -> Union[np.ndarray, None]: """ Map vector from dim to dim_full. Usually used for x, grad. Parameters ---------- x: array_like, shape=(dim,) The vector in dimension dim. x_fixed_vals: array_like, ndim=1, optional The values to be used for the fixed indices. If None and x_is_grad=False, problem.x_fixed_vals is used; for x_is_grad=True, nans are inserted. x_is_grad: bool If true, x is treated as gradients. """ if x is None: return None # make sure it is an array x = np.array(x) if len(x) == self.dim_full: return x # Note: The funny indexing construct is to handle residual gradients, # where the last dimension is assumed to be the parameter one. x_full = np.zeros(x.shape[:-1] + (self.dim_full,)) x_full[:] = np.nan x_full[..., self.x_free_indices] = x if x_fixed_vals is not None: x_full[..., self.x_fixed_indices] = x_fixed_vals return x_full if not x_is_grad: x_full[..., self.x_fixed_indices] = self.x_fixed_vals return x_full
[docs] def get_full_matrix( self, x: Union[np.ndarray, None] ) -> Union[np.ndarray, None]: """ Map matrix from dim to dim_full. Usually used for hessian. Parameters ---------- x: array_like, shape=(dim, dim) The matrix in dimension dim. """ if x is None: return None # make sure it is an array x = np.array(x) if len(x) == self.dim_full: return x x_full = np.zeros((self.dim_full, self.dim_full)) x_full[:, :] = np.nan x_full[np.ix_(self.x_free_indices, self.x_free_indices)] = x return x_full
[docs] def get_reduced_vector( self, x_full: Union[np.ndarray, None], x_indices: Optional[list[int]] = None, ) -> Union[np.ndarray, None]: """ Keep only those elements, which indices are specified in x_indices. If x_indices is not provided, delete fixed indices. Parameters ---------- x_full: array_like, ndim=1 The vector in dimension dim_full. x_indices: indices of x_full that should remain """ if x_full is None: return None if x_indices is None: x_indices = self.x_free_indices if len(x_full) == len(x_indices): return x_full x = [x_full[idx] for idx in x_indices] return np.array(x)
[docs] def get_reduced_matrix( self, x_full: Union[np.ndarray, None] ) -> Union[np.ndarray, None]: """ Map matrix from dim_full to dim, i.e. delete fixed indices. Parameters ---------- x_full: array_like, ndim=2 The matrix in dimension dim_full. """ if x_full is None: return None if len(x_full) == self.dim: return x_full x = x_full[np.ix_(self.x_free_indices, self.x_free_indices)] return x
[docs] def full_index_to_free_index(self, full_index: int): """ Calculate index in reduced vector from index in full vector. Parameters ---------- full_index: The index in the full vector. Returns ------- free_index: The index in the free vector. """ fixed_indices = np.asarray(self.x_fixed_indices) if full_index in fixed_indices: raise ValueError( "Cannot compute index in free vector: Index is fixed." ) return full_index - sum(fixed_indices < full_index)
[docs] def print_parameter_summary(self) -> None: """ Print a summary of parameters. Include what parameters are being optimized and parameter boundaries. """ print( # noqa: T201 (print) pd.DataFrame( index=self.x_names, data={ "free": [ idx in self.x_free_indices for idx in range(self.dim_full) ], "lb_full": self.lb_full, "ub_full": self.ub_full, }, ) )
[docs] def get_startpoints(self, n_starts: int) -> np.ndarray: """ Sample startpoints from method. Parameters ---------- n_starts: Number of start points. Returns ------- xs: Start points, shape (n_starts, dim). """ return self.startpoint_method(n_starts, self)
_convtypes = { "float": {"attr": "__float__", "conv": float}, "int": {"attr": "__int__", "conv": int}, } def _type_conversion_with_check( index: int, value: Union[SupportsFloat, SupportsInt], valuename: str, convtype: str, ) -> Union[float, int]: """ Convert values to the requested type. Raises and appropriate error if not possible. """ if convtype not in _convtypes: raise ValueError(f"Unsupported type {convtype}") can_convert = hasattr(value, _convtypes[convtype]["attr"]) # this may fail for weird custom ypes that can be converted to int but # not float, but we probably don't want those as indiced anyways lossless_conversion = not convtype == "int" or ( hasattr(value, _convtypes["float"]["attr"]) and (float(value) - int(value) == 0.0) ) if not can_convert or not lossless_conversion: raise ValueError( f"All {valuename} must support lossless conversion to {convtype}. " f"Found type {type(value)} at index {index}, which cannot " f"be converted to {convtype}." ) return _convtypes[convtype]["conv"](value) def _make_iterable_if_value( value: Union[SupportsFloatIterableOrValue, SupportsIntIterableOrValue], convtype: str, ) -> Union[Iterable[SupportsFloat], Iterable[SupportsInt]]: """Convert scalar values to iterables for scalar input, may update type.""" if convtype not in _convtypes: raise ValueError(f"Unsupported type {convtype}") if not hasattr(value, "__iter__"): return [_type_conversion_with_check(0, value, "values", convtype)] else: return value